DRAFT: This module has unpublished changes.

Food Service Module

Define the following terms:


  • FTE: FTE stands for full time equivalent and is a way to quantitatively compare employee’s hours of employment. It is used to calculate how much an employee will contribute to a project. For example, FTEs are used in grant proposals to calculate how much a particular staff member will be involved in the project and how that effects budgeting.  FTEs are measured by calculating the ratio of the number of hours an employee works during a particular period to the number of hours an employee could have worked during that same period. 
  • “Danger Zone”: The danger zone is a temperature range in which foodborne bacteria grow best. The range is 40 degrees Fahrenheit to 140 degrees Fahrenheit.
  • Break Even Point: When revenue equals cost and there is no net loss or gain. Break-even points can be calculated using the following formula: Total fixed cost/ (Unit sale price-Unit variable price) 
  • FIFO: “First in, First Out” is a food safety method in which foods are used in the order they are received. Older items are used before newer items this helps to ensure more fresh and safe food.  
  • Marketing Mix: Marketing mix is a marketing framework. The marketing mix consists of the four p’s (product decisions, price decisions and place decisions, promotion decisions) which can be used by a person in marketing to develop a marketing campaign.
  • CQI: CQI is a management approach known as continuous quality improvement. In CQI, systems and subsystems are constantly analyzed in order to identify problems and make improvements for success.  
  • HACCP: HACCP refers to “Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points.” HACCP is a preventative method for managing food safety by controlling physical, chemical, and biological hazards. It includes methods for controlling distribution of food, proper storage of foods, and safe production of foods. 
  • Standard of Identity: Standards of identify are federally established  requirements that determine what a food product must contain to be marketed under a specific name in interstate commerce.  
  • Benchmarking: A process in which an organization compares their performance and business processes against others within the same or different industries. 
  • Social Marketing: Social marketing is a type of marketing in which marketing benefits the marketing audience or society.
  • Micromanagement: Micromanagement is a type of management style in which the manager observes her supervisees closely. 


Discuss the importance of the menu in food service operations. Consider the relationship between the menu and: 



the purchasing process



the staff required 



the equipment required



the budget (cash flow and expenses)




The menu ties a food service operation together. Products marketed on the menu bring customers into a restaurant and purchase of that food enables the food service operation to survive. The food on the menu has to be culturally sensitive, appetizing, and within the appropriate price point. The menu determines the foods that will be necessary for purchasing. Foods items on the menu will need to be purchased and prepared for service. The food that will be served on the menu will require staff to prepare it. The amount of food that will be served, the price the food will be served at, and the technical requirements of turning out the food will help to determine how much staff will need to be present. The food on the menu will also determine what equipment will be required. If a large number of onions are being chopped for example, it may be cheaper and more efficient to purchase equipment for slicing the onion. 


Discuss how the availability of food relates to menu planning. Why is it important to use seasonal products? 


The price of most food items varies depending upon the season and economic factors for example the price of gas can affect the price of corn. When planning a menu the chef will need to take not only the price of these foods into consideration, but also the appeal of the foods. Foods that have to travel long distances, or have been frozen for long periods of time may not be as appetizing to the customer as fresh food that has less of a compromised nutritional status due to less physical damage from travel and elapsed time. It is important to choose seasonal products primarily because they tend to be less expensive. Foods grown in season are plentiful during that period of time and less expensive. It is also important to choose seasonal produce that is available locally, because it does not have to travel long distances to get to you. Therefore your carbon footprint is reduced and the food is less damaged due to less time spent traveling. For example fruit may overripen if not consumed within a certain period of time. During that ripening process certain nutrients are lost. 


Describe at least 3 ways in which an institutional food service (hospital, prison, school, etc.) is different from a restaurant kitchen and food service.


Institutional food services serve more or less the same clientele. In a restaurant kitchen the clientele varies by day. In order to cut down on costs institutional food services often have cycle menus. Cycle menus are set up so that customers do not get sick of having the same food over and over again and in order to control price. In restaurants they tend to have a set menu that may vary slightly because. Institutional food service establishments often produce meals in greater quantity than restaurant kitchens.


Describe at least 3 ways in which they are the same.

For both institutional food services and restaurant kitchens marketing is necessary although the marketing method used may vary. The food itself still has to be appealing. The type of food service establishment may or may not have a static clientele, but in order for customers to purchase the food it must be appealing. Both types of organizations look for ways to maximize profit.


Food Order Preparation

Based on the information below, what can you surmise about food usage at this facility?


The foods used at this facility are in general foods that can be stored for long periods of time. 


Should the par stock levels be adjusted?  Why or why not?


It is difficult to assess based on the information provided if the par stock level should be adjusted. If the current food items listed below are the only food items being used than I would definitely adjust the par stock levels in addition to adding in items of higher nutritional quality for example vegetables and fruit. 


What would be on the weekly food order submitted for this facility? (see below)


Par Stock Level

Weekly Inventory

rice (5 lb bags)



canned potatoes (#10 cans)



applesauce (#10 cans)



pork and beans (# 303 cans)



rye bread (loaves)



wheat bread (loaves)



eggs (dozen)



vegetable oil (liters)



hot dogs (1 lb packs)



chicken quarters (5 lb pkg)




6 rice (5 lb bags)

4 canned potatoes (#10 cans)

4 applesauce (#10 cans)

4 pork and beans (# 303 cans)

1 rye bread (loaves)

9 wheat bread (loaves)

7 eggs (dozen)

2 vegetable oil (liters)

5 hot dogs (1 lb packs)

8 chicken quarters (5 lb pkg)

Marketing campaigns often pair the overt (stated) benefit(s) of using their product or service with another desire of the target demographic group.  For example: Using toothpaste brand X will give you shiny white teeth – paired with – having shiny white teeth will make cute people want to socialize with you.  Describe a promotional campaign for a nutrition program that could utilize this marketing strategy.


A company selling olive oil could use the following slogan:  Eating healthy fats will help you reduce your cholesterol level. Avoid trans fats, and saturated fats which are found primarily in fried foods and packaged foods. Eat more monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats like those found in nuts and olive oil.


Write an outline of a business plan for your services as a Registered Dietitian, or for a food product that you would like to promote. 


  • Business Description and Vision: Super Broccoli is a start-up grower and distributor of a cross-bred broccoli for CSAs, farmers markets, and local grocers. Super Broccoli is located in Central California and serves Northern California Super Broccoli's objectives are to develop a product-based company whose goal is to exceed customer's expectations, increase production efficiency by 10% a year, ad develop a sustainable farm business, able to survive off their cash flow.
  • Definition of the Market: Super Broccoli is intended to be sold to CSAs, farmers markets, and local small grocers serving health conscious consumers. 
  • Description of Products and Services: Super Broccoli is traditional British broccoli cross-bred with a wild, bitter Sicilian variety that hasno flowery head and a large amount of glucoraphnin. Super Broccoli contains two to three times the normal amount of glucoraphanin which is a nutrient believed to help ward off heart disease.
  • Organization and Management: The business will be based out of Melissa Cannon's home. The office will be within her home and the farm will be on her adjoining 20 acres of land.
  • Marketing and Sales Strategy: Super Broccoli will be marketed as a specialty item and will initially be sold locally. Super Broccoli will have articles published in the healthy living section of several newspapers regarding the research conducted on Super Broccoli before it hits the market. Evidence will be submitted to appropriate agencies to claim that Super Broccoli has health benefits and can be labeled as such.
  • Financial Management: Super Broccoli will require $65,000 to start up initially. $20,000 will be contibuted by Melissa Cannon; $20,000 will come from a second investor; and the remaining some will be acquired through loans. We anticipate becoming a profitable buisness in year two. By year five we anticipate enough funds to pay off all debts. 

A foodservice operation uses hamburger patties at an average rate of six cases per day. It takes 3 days after an order is placed to receive the order. Management wants to keep 2 days’ supply on hand.  The reorder point would be how many cases?

Reorder when you have 30 cases. 6 will be used that day and you will have 24 cases by the end of the day. 6 cases will be used on the second day and you will have 18 cases left. On the third day you will have 12 cases left which will ensure that you still have 2 day of supplies on hand in case you need it. 


Foodservice data indicate 31% of the 360 clients served ordered roasted chicken when it was a menu item.  Based on the historical data, approximately how many servings of chicken should be forecasted?


112 servings of chicken


A business pays 3% of its income as rent ($1,500), 65% towards labor and food costs, and $2,800 towards other monthly expenses. How much profit does this business make per month?13,200


Income= 50,000

Rent= 1500

Labor and food costs= 32500

Monthly expenses= 2800


You are planning the budget for next year.  Labor costs will increase by 12%.  Food costs will increase by 8%.  Operating costs will increase by 2%. This year, sales totaled $1,000,000.  Labor costs were 40% of income, food cost was 40% of income and operating costs were 20% of income. What is the projected budget?


Labor= 448000

Food= 432000

Operating cost= 204000









DRAFT: This module has unpublished changes.